Models of Educational Leadership and Management

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Managerial leadership 
Caldwell (1992:16-17) 
  1. Goal setting; 
  2. Needs identification; 
  3. Priority-setting; 
  4. Planning; 
  5. Budgeting; 
  6. Implementing; and 
  7. Evaluating.
Transformational leadership 
Leithwood (1994) 
  1. Building school vision; 
  2. Establishing school goals; 
  3. Providing intellectual stimulation; 
  4. Offering individualized support; 
  5. Modeling best practices and important organizational values; 
  6. Demonstrating high-performance expectations; 
  7. Creating a productive school culture; and 
  8. Developing structures to foster participation in school decisions. 


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